Mission: Second Harvest Food Bank's mission is to end hunger in Orange County. Last year, our Food Bank distributed 56.1 million pounds of food to our Partner Network members ... (More)

Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County is a 501(c)(3) organization, with an IRS ruling year of 2012, and donations are tax-deductible.

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Contact Information

  https://www.feedoc.org/

 8014 Marine Way
Irvine CA 92618 

  949-653-2900


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Star Rating System by Charity Navigator


Charity Navigator evaluates a nonprofit organization’s financial health including measures of stability, efficiency and sustainability. We also track accountability and transparency policies to ensure the good governance and integrity of the organization.




Exceptional

This charity's score is 96.66, earning it a 4-Star rating. Donors can "Give with Confidence" to this charity. 

This score is calculated from two sub-scores:

This score represents Form 990 data from 2019, the latest year published by the IRS.

View this organization’s historical ratings.


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Star Rated Report

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Program Expense

Program Expense Ratio

94.9%


The Program Expense Ratio is determined by Program Expenses divided by Total Expense (average of most recent three 990s).


This measure reflects the percent of its total expenses a charity spends on the programs and services it exists to deliver. Dividing a charity's average program expenses by its average total functional expenses yields this percentage. We calculate the charity's average expenses over its three most recent fiscal years.


Source: IRS Form 990

Administrative Expenses

2.7%


As reported by charities on their IRS Form 990, this measure reflects what percent of its total budget a charity spends on overhead, administrative staff and associated costs, and organizational meetings. Dividing a charity's average administrative expenses by its average total functional expenses yields this percentage. We calculate the charity's average expenses over its three most recent fiscal years.


Source: IRS Form 990

Fundraising Expenses

2.3%


This measure reflects what a charity spends to raise money. Fundraising expenses can include campaign printing, publicity, mailing, and staffing and costs incurred in soliciting donations, memberships, and grants. Dividing a charity's average fundraising expenses by its average total functional expenses yields this percentage. We calculate the charity's average expenses over its three most recent fiscal years.


Source: IRS Form 990

Liabilities to Assets Ratio

4.3%


The Liabilities to Assets Ratio is determined by Total Liabilities divided by Total Assets (most recent 990).


Part of our goal in rating the financial performance of charities is to help donors assess the financial capacity and sustainability of a charity. As do organizations in other sectors, charities must be mindful of their management of total liabilites in relation to their total assets. This ratio is an indicator of an organization’s solvency and or long term sustainability. Dividing a charity's total liabilities by its total assets yields this percentage.


Source: IRS Form 990

Fundraising Efficiency

$0.02


The amount spent to raise $1 in charitable contributions. To calculate a charity's fundraising efficiency, we divide its average fundraising expenses by the average total contributions it receives. We calculate the charity's average expenses and average contributions over its three most recent fiscal years.


Source: IRS Form 990

Working Capital Ratio

0.24 years


Determines how long a charity could sustain its level of spending using its net available assets, or working capital, as reported on its most recently filed Form 990. We include in a charity's working capital unrestricted and temporarily restricted net assets, and exclude permanently restricted net assets. Dividing these net available assets in the most recent year by a charity's average total expenses, yields the working capital ratio. We calculate the charity's average total expenses over its three most recent fiscal years.


Source: IRS Form 990

Program Expense Growth

9.65%


We compute the average annual growth of program expenses using the following formula: [(Yn/Y0)(1/n)]-1, where Y0 is a charity's program expenses in the first year of the interval analyzed, Yn is the charity's program expenses in the most recent year, and n is the interval of years passed between Y0 and Yn.


Source: IRS Form 990

Governance


Charity Navigator looks to confirm on the Form 990 that the organization has these governance practices in place.


Sources Include: IRS Form 990

Governance:
Independent Voting Board Members  ... (More)
No Material Diversion of Assets ... (More)

A diversion of assets – any unauthorized conversion or use of the organization's assets other than for the organization's authorized purposes, including but not limited to embezzlement or theft – can seriously call into question a charity's financial integrity. We check the charity's last two Forms 990 to see if the charity has reported any diversion of assets. If the charity does report a diversion, then we check to see if it complied with the Form 990 instructions by describing what happened and its corrective action. This metric will be assigned to one of the following categories:

  • Full Credit: There has been no diversion of assets within the last two years.

  • Partial Credit: There has been a diversion of assets within the last two years and the charity has used Schedule O on the Form 990 to explain: the nature of the diversion, the amount of money or property involved and the corrective action taken to address the matter. In this situation, we deduct 7 points from the charity's Accountability and Transparency score.
  • No Credit: There has been a diversion of assets within the last two years and the charity's explanation on Schedule O is either non-existent or not sufficient. In this case, we deduct 15 points from the charity's Accountability and Transparency score.
(Less)
Audited Financials Prepared by Independent Accountant ... (More)

Audited financial statements provide important information about financial accountability and accuracy. They should be prepared by an independent accountant with oversight from an audit committee. (It is not necessary that the audit committee be a separate committee. Often at smaller charities, it falls within the responsibilities of the finance committee or the executive committee.) The committee provides an important oversight layer between the management of the organization, which is responsible for the financial information reported, and the independent accountant, who reviews the financials and issues an opinion based on its findings. We check the charity's Form 990 reporting to see if it meets this criteria.

  • Full Credit: The charity's audited financials were prepared by an independent accountant with an audit oversight committee.

  • Partial Credit: The charity's audited financials were prepared by an independent accountant, but it did not have an audit oversight committee. In this case, we deduct 7 points from the charity's Accountability and Transparency score.
  • No Credit: The charity did not have its audited financials prepared by an independent accountant. In this case, we deduct 15 points from the charity's Accountability and Transparency score.
(Less)
Does Not Provide Loan(s) to or Receive Loan(s) From Related Parties ... (More)
Documents Board Meeting Minutes ... (More)
Distributes 990 to Board Before Filing ... (More)
Compensates Board ... (More)

Policies


Charity Navigator looks to confirm on the Form 990, or for some metrics on the charity's website, that the organization has these policies in place.


Sources Include: IRS Form 990 and organization's website

Policies:
Conflict of Interest  ... (More)
Whistleblower ... (More)
Records Retention and Destruction ... (More)
CEO Compensation Process ... (More)
Donor Privacy ... (More)

Donors have expressed extreme concern about the use of their personal information by charities and the desire to have this information kept confidential. The exchanging and sale of lists for telemarketing and the mass distribution of "junk mail," among other things, can be minimized if the charity assures the privacy of its donors. Privacy policies are assigned to one of the following categories:

  • Yes: This charity has a written donor privacy policy published on its website, which states unambiguously that (1) it will not share or sell a donor's personal information with anyone else, nor send donor mailings on behalf of other organizations or (2) it will only share or sell personal information once the donor has given the charity specific permission to do so.

  • Opt-out: The charity has a written privacy policy published on its website which enables donors to tell the charity to remove their names and contact information from lists the charity shares or sells. How a donor can have themselves removed from a list differs from one charity to the next, but any and all opt-out policies require donors to take specific action to protect their privacy.
  • No: This charity either does not have a written donor privacy policy in place to protect their contributors' personal information, or the existing policy does not meet our criteria.

The privacy policy must be specific to donor information. A general website policy which references "visitor" or "user" personal information will not suffice. A policy that refers to donor information collected on the website is also not sufficient as the policy must be comprehensive and applicable to both online and offline donors. The existence of a privacy policy of any type does not prohibit the charity itself from contacting the donor for informational, educational, or solicitation purposes.

(Less)

Transparency


Charity Navigator looks to confirm on the Form 990, or for some metrics on the charity's website, that the organization makes this information easily accessible.


Sources Include: IRS Form 990 and organization's website

Transparency:
CEO Salary Listed on 990 ... (More)
Board of Directors Listed on Website ... (More)
Key Staff Listed on Website ... (More)
Audited Financial Statements on Website ... (More)
Form 990 Available on Website ... (More)

Additional Information

Unscored

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Total Revenue and Expenses

Total Revenue and Expenses

This chart displays the trend of revenue and expenses over the past several years for this organization, as reported on their IRS Form 990.

Salary of Key Persons

Presented here are this organizations key compensated staff members as identified by our analysts. This compensation data includes salary, cash bonuses and expense accounts and is displayed exactly how it is reported to the IRS. The amounts do not include nontaxable benefits, deferred compensation, or other amounts not reported on Form W-2. In some cases, these amounts may include compensation from related organizations. Read the IRS policies for compensation reporting



Nicole Suydman, Former CEO

$125,468 (0.20% of Total Expenses)


Harald Herrmann, CEO

$0 (0.00% of Total Expenses)


Gloria Crockett, CDO

$143,092 (0.23% of Total Expenses)


Current CEO and Board Chair can be found in the Leadership & Adaptability report below.

Source: IRS Form 990 (page 7), filing year 2020

Business Master File Data

Below are some key data points from the Exempt Organization IRS Business Master File (BMF) for this organization. Learn more about the BMF on the IRS website


Activities:

Activity data not reported from the IRS


Foundation Status:

Organization which receives a substantial part of its support from a governmental unit or the general public   170(b)(1)(A)(vi) (BMF foundation code: 15)


Affiliation:

Independent - the organization is an independent organization or an independent auxiliary (i.e., not affiliated with a National, Regional, or Geographic grouping of organizations). (BMF affiliation code: 3)

Data Sources: IRS Forms 990

The Form 990 is a document that nonprofit organizations file with the IRS annually. We leverage finance and accountability data from it to form Encompass ratings. Click here to view this organization's Forms 990 on the IRS website (if any are available).

Pandemic Response

Due to the unprecedented nature of the pandemic, we give charities such as this one the opportunity to share the story of COVID's impact on them. Charities may submit their own pandemic responses through their nonprofit portal.


Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County reported being impacted by COVID-19 in the following ways:
  • Program Delivery


How COVID-19 impacted the organization's operations financially:

The impact to our organization’s operations financially was that we needed to spend significantly more money on food in order to meet the unprecedented need in the community due to COVID-induced unemployment, and therefore needed to raise the funds to do so. For example, in our 2020 Fiscal Year (July 2019 – June 2020), we budgeted to spend nearly $1M on food purchases. This is compared to FY21 (July 2020 – June 2021), where we budgeted $7M on food purchases in order to meet the growing need.


How COVID-19 impacted the organization's delivery of programs:

COVID created a perfect storm: increased need from the community due to un/under-employment, decreased donations of food, decreased volunteer workforce, initial decreased locations where people could obtain food due to many pantry closures, and increased food costs. These challenges completely changed the way we sourced, processed and distributed food into the community during the height of the pandemic in 2020, and beyond. Despite these challenges, we continued to distribute food to those in need, upwards of 600,000 people/month during the height of COVID, compared to 249,000 pre-COVID. Our main programs impact was how food was distributed into the community. Previously focused on social gatherings where individuals could choose the food items, COVID shifted distributions to be drive-up or socially-distant walk-throughs of pre-packaged boxes of nutritious food. While distributions looked different, nutritious food was still provided in a compassionate way to those in need.


How this organization adapted to changing conditions caused by COVID-19:

Key operational shifts to adapt to changing conditions included: •Purchased significantly more food to meet the increased need. •Worked with our pantry network to shift their distributions to drive-up or socially-distant walk-throughs of pre-packaged boxes of nutritious food. •Shifted our Grocery Rescue program to be picked up exclusively by our pantry network because we did not have the volunteers evaluate it at our facility. •Purchased pre-packaged family-sized produce boxes to serve our partners that did not have the volunteers to work larger bulk produce. •Replaced our suspended volunteer workforce by hiring for 3 months 140 newly unemployed individuals as temporary employees to prepare food boxes for distribution. •Innovated an all-volunteer Harvest Truck Brigade which delivered 95,642 boxes to those who were home bound. •Implemented large-scale drive-thru food distributions at the Honda Center over 15 Saturdays, providing more than 2M pounds of food to more than 62,436 cars.


Innovations the organization intends to continue permanently after the pandemic:

COVID-19 resulted in several lasting innovations. Even in the throes of COVID, we continued to innovate – co-creating in late 2020 the Orange County Hunger Alliance, a partnership with Community Action Partnership of Orange County, the OC Food Bank and Abound Food Care. It’s the first time three anti-hunger organizations are pooling resources to end poverty by first ending hunger. Another recent achievement is our accelerated commitment to nutrition. The pandemic hastened our transition from a dependence on donated food to an intentional sourcing strategy so we may provide nutritious food to the pantry network in OC. With a laser-focus on nutrition, the food that arrives and leaves our distribution center are rapidly changing. This transition has resulted in an increased flow of food that is wholesome, nutritious – and perishable – and represents a significant long-term, structural pivot which will have an impact on reducing poverty, food and nutritional insecurity and hunger.


Historical Ratings

Date PublishedForm 990 FYEOverall ScoreOverall Rating
Rating Version: 2.1
2/1/20212019 96.66
9/3/20192018 97.17
9/1/20182017 96.80
2/1/20182016 94.31

...   Impact & Results


This score estimates the actual impact a nonprofit has on the lives of those it serves, and determines whether it is making good use of donor resources to achieve that impact.


Impact & Results Score

100

out of 100

Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County is , earning a passing score. This score has no effect on the organization's Star Rating.


Impact

$2 provides a meal to a person in need.


Do you work at Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County? Join the waitlist for an updated Impact & Results score.


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Impact & Results Report

100

of 100 points


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Rated Program

Rated Program


Program

Kids Cafe, School Pantry, Senior Grocery, Park-it Market and Fresh Food for Families and Individuals

Activities

The nonprofit primarily collects, warehouses and distributes food to front-line organizations like food pantries and soup kitchens. It also manages smaller programs that serve meals and provide groceries directly to beneficiaries.

Program Type

Beneficiaries Served

Program Geography

Time Period of Data


Learn how we assess the impact of nonprofits

Outcomes and Cost

Outcomes: Changes in the lives of those served by a nonprofit. They can be caused by the nonprofit.

Costs: The money spent by a nonprofit and its partners and beneficiaries.

Impact: Outcome caused by a nonprofit relative to its cost.

Cost-effectiveness: A judgment as to whether the cost was a good use of resources to cause the outcome.


Outcome Metric


Outcome Data Source

Ratings are based on data the nonprofit itself collects on its work. We use the most recent year with sufficient data. Typically, this data allows us to calculate direct changes in participants' lives, such as increased income.


Outcome data collected during the program. The nonprofit publicly reports the amount of food it provides.


Method for Attributing Outcomes

We don't know if the observed changes were caused by the nonprofit's program or something else happening at the same time (e.g., a participant got a raise). To determine causation, we take the outcomes we observe and subtract an estimate of the outcomes that would have happened even without the program (i.e., counterfactual outcomes).


We assume that the distribution of a meal from one nonprofit's food distribution program does not diminish the amount of food distributed by any other (neighboring) food distribution program. This “counterfactual” assumption about the amount of food distributed in the absence of the nonprofit’s food distribution program implies that the benefit of a meal to a beneficiary in need constitutes a net gain; the gain is not offset by reductions in food provided to other beneficiaries in need. We therefore set the counterfactual to zero.


Cost Data Source

After estimating the program's outcomes, we need to determine how much it cost to achieve those outcomes. All monetary costs are counted, whether they are borne by a nonprofit service deliverer or by the nonprofit’s public and private partners.


Program cost data reported by the nonprofit. Partner and beneficiary costs reported by the nonprofit or estimated by Charity Navigator.


Impact and Determination

We calculate impact, defined as the change in outcomes attributable to a program divided by the cost to achieve those outcomes.

Impact Statement

$2 provides a meal to a person in need.

Benchmark for Rating

Impact & Results scores of food distribution programs are based on the cost of a meal relative to the cost that a food-secure person incurs to buy a meal in that county. Programs receive an Impact & Results score of 100 if they are less than 75% the cost of a meal and a score of 75 if they are less than 125%. If a nonprofit reports impact but doesn't meet the threshold for cost-effectiveness, it earns a score of 50.

Determination

Nonprofit Comment

Before publishing, we ask every nonprofit we can to review our work, offer corrections and provide a comment.


This nonprofit did not provide a comment

Analysis Details


Analysis conducted by ImpactMatters and published on November 22, 2019.

Additional Information

Unscored

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Largest Programs

Largest Programs



Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County reported its largest program on its FY 2020 Form 990 as:


$82,470,574

Spent in most recent FY

100%

Percent of program expenses


SECOND HARVEST FOOD BANK HAS BEEN FEEDING ORANGE COUNTY'S MOST VULNERABLE POPULATIONS INCLUDING CHILDREN AND THEIR FAMILIES, SENIORS ON FIXED INCOMES, VETERANS, PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND THOSE WITH ... (More)


...   Leadership & Adaptability


This score provides an assessment of the organization's leadership capacity, strategic thinking and planning, and ability to innovate or respond to changes in constituent demand/need or other relevant social and economic conditions to achieve the organization's mission.


Leadership & Adaptability Score

100

out of 100

The score earned by Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County is a passing score. This score has no effect on the organization's Star Rating.

Encompass Rating V4 provides an evaluation of the organization's Leadership & Adaptability through the nonprofit organization submitting a survey response directly to Charity Navigator.


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Leadership & Adaptability Report

100

of 100 points

Mission

The nonprofit organization presents evidence of strategic thinking through articulating the organization’s mission


To end hunger in Orange County.


Source: Nonprofit submitted responses

Vision

The nonprofit organization presents evidence of strategic thinking through articulating the organization’s vision.


We are a purpose-driven organization committed to doing whatever it takes to ensure all are well fed. Providing dignified, equitable and consistent access to nutritious food creates a foundation for community health and is a catalyst for societal transformation.


Source: Nonprofit submitted responses

Strategic Goals

The nonprofit organization presents evidence of strategic thinking and goal setting through sharing their most important strategic goals.


Goal One: Source and distribute nutritious food to meet the needs of the community impacted by the economic fallout of COVID. Our projection of that need is distributing 28M lbs. of food in FY22 (07/21-06/22).

Goal Type: Grow, expand, scale or increase access to the existing programs and services.


Goal Two: Provide reliable and dignified access to sufficient nutritious food to an average of 400,000 people each month through our county-wide pantry network.

Goal Type: Grow, expand, scale or increase access to the existing programs and services.


Goal Three: Continue to build the capacity of our 250+ pantry network by providing increased amounts of food and providing supplies and cold storage equipment where needed.

Goal Type: Grow, expand, scale or increase access to the existing programs and services.


Source: Nonprofit submitted responses

Leadership Development

The nonprofit provides evidence of investment in leadership development


Describe an investment in leadership

As part of our leadership development, in 2021 Second Harvest invested in the Six Sigma Certification in warehouse operations for 3 logistical team members. Six Sigma is a proven data-driven methodology that when integrated into a warehouse, results in a statistically driven way of resolving issues quickly and efficiently at the root cause as well as discovering metrics that can be further optimized. Completion of the certification not only furthers the development and skills of the team member, but also brings much added value to their role and the organization. Our Director of Sourcing, Logistics & Sustainability shared: “Being a Six Sigma certified team member has given me the ability to think more strategically and focus on improvements for operational and procedural issues to help optimize and improve procedural functionality.”

Source: Nonprofit submitted responses

Mobilizing for Mission

The nonprofit provides evidence of leadership through focusing externally and mobilizing resources for the mission.


This organization mobilizes for mission in the following ways:
  • Strategic Partnerships

  • Networks of Collective Impact Efforts

  • Raising Awareness

  • Policy Advocacy

What are this organization’s external mobilizaton efforts?

Our external mobilization efforts include the co-creation of the Orange County Hunger Alliance (OCHA). OCHA is an alliance between Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County, Community Action Partnership, including Orange County Food Bank, and Abound Food Care. This alliance has an aligned strategy to end hunger in OC and each partner brings a deep, rich expertise with years of experience as respected leaders in their field. As one entity, OCHA will work together to ensure all are well fed and focus on tackling other root causes of poverty to increase access to nutritious food for all of OC, ultimately bridging racial and economic divides. Included in our work with the OCHA, we are also heavily involved in hunger-related advocacy efforts, including childhood nutrition, CalFresh/SNAP, WIC, and other hunger, nutrition, and poverty issues. Our Chief Mission Officer serves as our lead advocate and in October 2021 we hired an additional staff member to support these efforts.

Source: Nonprofit submitted responses

Story of Adaptability

The nonprofit has an opportunity to tell the story of how the organization adapted to tremendous external changes in the last year.


Second Harvest Food Bank has greatly adapted our services to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, our reality right now is that our services are needed even more by the community due to the sustained economic fallout of the pandemic. Due to the economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020, 2021 and the continued economic aftermath will stand out historically as unprecedented years of community need and our food bank’s required emergency food response. Our team anticipated the extraordinary food-insecurity challenges resulting from COVID-19 and efficiently pivoted, quickly reworking entire distribution center operations, including how we source, process, and distribute food. Our team successfully provided 60M pounds of food in FY21, up from 42M pounds in FY20 and 29M pounds in FY19. COVID created a perfect storm: increased need from the community due to unemployment, decreased donations of food, decreased volunteer workforce, initial decreased locations where people could obtain food (due to many pantry closures), and increased food costs. These challenges completely changed the way we source, process and distribute food into the community. Despite these challenges, we continue to feed those in need. Key operational shifts made to adapt our services include: • Purchasing significantly more food to meet the increased need. • Working with our pantry network to shift their food distributions to drive-up or socially-distant walk-throughs of pre-packaged boxes of nutritious food. • Shifting our Grocery Rescue program to be picked up exclusively by our pantry network because we do not have the volunteers to sort and evaluate it at our facility. • Distributing Farm to Family produce only to our larger Mobile Pantry partners who have the volunteers to sort through the large bins of produce. • Purchasing pre-packaged family-sized produce boxes to serve our smaller partners that do not have the volunteers to work F2F produce.

Source: Nonprofit submitted responses

Additional Information

Unscored

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Organization Leadership

Organization Leadership


Harald Herrmann

Chief Executive Officer

Dave Coffaro

Chair

...   Culture & Community


This score provides an assessment of the organization's engagement with the constituents it serves, a practice we term Constituent Feedback. When organizations listen to constituents, they are able to better deliver on programs and meet the needs of stakeholders. A future version of this Beacon will also assess an organization's people operations and its Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) metrics.


Culture & Community Score

Not Currently Scored

Second Harvest Food Bank of Orange County is currently not eligible for a Culture & Community score because we have not received its Constituent Feedback data. Nonprofit organizations are encouraged to fill out the How We Listen section of their Candid profile. This data will provide the basis for the initial evaluation of Culture & Community.

Note: The absence of a score does not indicate a positive or negative assessment, it only indicates that we have not yet evaluated the organization.


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Culture & Community Report

Unscored

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Constituent Feedback

Constituent Feedback

Not Scored


This organization reported that it is collecting feedback.


Here's how this organization is listening and learning from the people they serve:


How is your organization collecting feedback from the people you serve?

Focus groups or interviews (by phone or in person)


How is your organization using feedback from the people you serve?

To inform the development of new programs/projects


With whom does your organization share the feedback you got from the people you serve?

Our staff, Our board, Our funders


What challenges does your organization face in collecting feedback from the people you serve?

It is difficult to get the people we serve to respond to requests for feedback


Briefly describe a recent change that your organization made in response to feedback from the people you serve.

Note: The organization did not respond to this question.



Methodology


Charity Navigator believes nonprofit organizations that engage in inclusive practices, such as collecting feedback from the people and communities they serve, may be more effective. We've partnered with GuideStar by Candid to survey organizations about their feedback practices. Nonprofit organizations can fill out the How We Listen section of their Candid profile to receive a rating.


Charity Navigator awards full credit for this Beacon to every nonprofit that is eligible for an Encompass Rating that completes the survey, in recognition of their willingness to publicly share this information with the nonprofit and philanthropic communities. This data is not evaluated for quality at this time. Validation will be added in future iterations of this Beacon.

Analysis and Research


Like the overall Encompass Rating System, the Culture & Community Beacon is designed to evolve as metrics are developed and ready for integration. Our partnership with Feedback Labs and Guidestar by Candid, and other partners including Fund for Shared Insight, GlobalGiving, and Keystone Accountability, enables us to launch the first version of this beacon with Constituent Feedback information collected on Candid's site.


Feedback practices have been shown to support better Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion outcomes, an essential area of assessment that we intend to further expand and develop in the future. Feedback Labs has documented several studies which indicate that beyond achieving organizational goals, nonprofits that are attentive and responsive to concerns and ideas raised by beneficiaries establish stronger relationships with the people they serve, promote greater equity, and empower constituents in ways that can help to ensure better long-term outcomes. You can find resources to help nonprofits improve their feedback practices here.

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